1. Skip to navigation
  2. Skip to content
Worms & Germs Map

Disease definitions



Clinical signs consistent with leptospirosis, and

Positive PCR from urine or blood sample, or,

Positive ELISA in a dog that has not been vaccinated recently, or

Four-fold rise in antibody titre in dogs that have not been vaccinated in the past 3 months, or,

Gross and microscopic lesions compatible with leptospirosis, with silver or immunostaining, or

Detection of Leptospira spp in urine by darkfield microscopy or in tissues by PCR or silver impregnation straining, or

Isolation of Leptospira spp by culture of urine or tissue, or

Positive immunostaining of urine sediment



Positive heartworm antigen test, and;

Confirmation with a different antigen test or detection of microfilaremia


Canine parvovirus

Clinical signs consistent with parvovirus infection, and;

Positive fecal antigen ELISA, or

Positive fecal PCR, or

Negative straining EM


Canine influenza

Consistent clinical signs (cough +/- fever, depression, nasal discharge, ocular discharge), and;

4 fold increase in serum antibody; or

Positive nasal or pharyngeal swab PCR, or

Positive IFA on lung tissue



Positive rabies report from evaluation of brain tissue by an accredited laboratory, based on current testing practices.



Confirmed: Consistent clinical presentation, and,

Cytological findings consistent with blastomycosis, or,

            Detection of Blastomyces DNA by PCR, or,

            Cytology consistent with Blastomyces in an animal that has been in an endemic area, or,

             Detection of Blastomyces antigen in urine by ELISA, or




Suspected: Consistent clinical presentation, and radiographic (pulmonary lesions) or histological (cutaneous) findings.




Clinical signs consistent with canine distemper virus (CDV) infection, and;

Four-fold or greater increase in serum antibody titre between acute and convalescent samples, or,

            Detection of CDV in tissue by IFA, or,

Detection of CDV DNA by PCR from whole blood, conjunctival swabs, buffy coat, CSF, or urine sediment, or,

Detection of anti-CDV IgM in serum (unless the dog had received its first CDV vaccine within the past 3 weeks)


Echinococcus multilocularis

            Histological examination followed by PCR confirmation of E. multilocularis